Download e-book for iPad: A Course in Differential Geometry (Graduate Studies in by Thierry Aubin

By Thierry Aubin

This textbook for second-year graduate scholars is meant as an creation to differential geometry with imperative emphasis on Riemannian geometry. bankruptcy I explains uncomplicated definitions and provides the proofs of the real theorems of Whitney and Sard.

Chapter II bargains with vector fields and differential varieties. bankruptcy III addresses integration of vector fields and $p$-plane fields. bankruptcy IV develops the concept of connection on a Riemannian manifold regarded as a way to outline parallel delivery at the manifold. the writer additionally discusses comparable notions of torsion and curvature, and provides a operating wisdom of the covariant by-product.

Chapter V specializes on Riemannian manifolds via deducing worldwide homes from neighborhood houses of curvature, the ultimate objective being to figure out the manifold thoroughly. bankruptcy VI explores a few difficulties in PDEs steered through the geometry of manifolds.

The writer is famous for his major contributions to the sector of geometry and PDEs--particularly for his paintings at the Yamabe problem--and for his expository bills at the topic.

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Proposition. The two definitions of a tangent vector are equivalent. 2. Tangent Space 46 Let y(t) be a map in the equivalence class 7 (7(0) = P), and f a realvalued function in a neighbourhood of P. 2), ' : X. Indeed, since d(f o7) = d(f ov-1 ocpo7) = d(f if -y1 - -t2 we have ra(fat71)lc=o = (a(J)lc=o' because by definition [d(v o yl)]t=o = [d(cp o 72)]t-o. 2): (a) is obvious, and if f is flat at P, than (8(f o -y)/&)t--o = 0 since (d(f o cp-1) pi = 0. Let us show now that ' : ry --- X is one-to-one and onto.

Indeed, consider a local chart at P with coordinates {x*} and a local chart at Q with coordinates {y°}. 4P is defined in a neighbourhood of P by p real-valued functions 4'°(x1, x2, ... , x"), a = 1, 2, , p. Using intrinsic notations to simplify, we get X(fo0)=d(fo-O)poX=(df)o(d4')poX=(dj)o($*)pX. Indeed, {X1} being the components of X in the basis {(8/8x`)p}, the components of Y = (41*) pX are n ° Y° I '''' 8x* X' in the basis {(8/8y°)Q}. When we use intrinsic notation, we do not specify the local charts.

Given q E Aq(M) and E AP(M), we define qAf E AP'-'(M), the exterior product of in and t;, by (n A C)(X1,... , Xp+q) I E e(a)n(Xv(1), ... , X0(q)X(Xc(1+q), ... , XQ(P+q)), p'q' VE'P , X,+q are p + q vector fields and the sum is over the set P of permutations a, e(a) being the signature of a. The exterior product is where X1, associative and anticommutative: l; A q = (-1)Pgq A l;. We also define the inner product i(X)77 of a differential form q E Aq(M) (1 < q< n) by a vector field X. i(X)v7 is a differential (q - 1)-form defined as follows: If X; (i = 1, 2, ...

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