By Peter W. Hawkes
The 2 chapters that fill this quantity describe instruments for learning the brightness of electron beams and for analysing the homes of mass spectrometers.
First, L.D. Duffy and A.J. Dragt introduce the idea that of eigen-emittance. 3 kinematic invariants are linked to charged-particle beams, in linear shipping mode. those invariants are often called eigen-emittances and a research in their homes makes it attainable to tailor the beam to slot the appliance in query. the idea relies at the suggestion of sym-plectic beam delivery, a subject matter on which A.J. Dragt has already contributed to those Advances (Advances in Electronics & Electron Physics, sixty seven, 1986, 65—120, with E. Forest). The authors first recapitulate the elemental concept ahead of explaining how the emittance will be tailored as required. the rest of the bankruptcy, which shape a quick treatise at the topic, offers numerous applications.
In the second one bankruptcy, I. Spivak-Lavrov describes at size methods of analysing the homes of either static and time-of-flight mass spectrometers and of devising new designs. The optics of those tools is decided out intimately, in an try to make the object self-contained. a lot Russian paintings is pointed out, usually from journals that aren't to be had in English translation and at times, will not be greatly on hand outdoor their international locations of beginning.
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Additional info for Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics, Volume 193
While ideas for producing transversely bright electron beams using emittance partitioning have been studied, they have not yet been fully implemented. Further work and demonstration will be necessary to fully realize proposals for tailoring the eigen-emittance values at the cathode. For the two-stage FBT + EEX scheme where the eigen-emittance values are deliberately altered by a second-stage nonlinear beam element, it will need to be experimentally verified that the increase in phase space volume when passing through this element can be kept small enough to give the desired eigen-emittance and emittance values.
At that point, distribution of ions in the source according to coordinates, emergence angles, energy, and mass is taken into account. For all these particles, the motion equations or trajectory equations are integrated numerically, and the distribution of particles upon the exit from COS in the detector plane is found. Thus, a computer model of a real experiment appears. Changing geometrical and electric parameters of the model, it is possible to achieve the optimization of instrument characteristics of COS.
One defined by a pair of canonically conjugate variables), the eigen-emittance can be decreased in at least one other plane, while still preserving the total phase space volume. To apply this method, the initial beam must have some correlation between the coordinate and associated conjugate momentum planes in phase space. Thus, the initial beam must be altered from the uncorrelated beam given by the z0n. These correlations can be induced on the uncorrelated beam by linear transformations, which are not symplectic.
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics, Volume 193 by Peter W. Hawkes