By Anoushiravan Ehteshami
This publication deals a complete learn of post-Khomeini Iran, exploring the Rafsanjani management from fiscal, political, overseas, and strategic views. Anoush Ehteshami assesses the severe dilemmas of the regime either earlier than and because the demise of its first religious chief.
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It too came under severe pressure after 1988 and its voice was effectively silenced during the crucial days in June and July 1989 when a new leadership was emerging to replace Ayatollah Khomeini. THE MONARCHIST CONTENDERS The monarchist contenders for power in Iran can be divided into a number of categories, based on leadership, political programme, and closeness to the ancien régime. The fundamentalist monarchists (FM) constituted that faction of the monarchist camp that believed in a strong, independent and powerful Shah at the helm of the state.
One faction of the FIR category, which became known as the ‘realists’ or ‘pragmatists’, formed an alliance with the social conservatives and was increasingly able to dominate the state machinery. In doing so, it progressively marginalised the influence of the Maktabi forces in the Islamic and secular national institutions of power. Much of the analysis of this process has, however, misunderstood the dynamics of the process involved. The anonymous author of a booklet published before Ayatollah Khomeini’s death was to say, for example: it is clear today that the supporters of the privatisation of trade and industry led by the technocrats like Rafsanjani, Khamenei and Moussavi are in control of the instruments of power, and the principle opposition factions, the Imam’s Line and Hojatieh, have been removed from the political scene and from control of the state.
The organisation’s declared intention was to lead ‘a coalition of democratic forces including intellectuals, middle class liberals, army officers, tribesmen and working classes to replace the Ayatollah’s regime with a just and constitutional government’, with ‘the young Shah…as [its] constitutional monarch’ (Bakhtiar’s speech at the Royal Institute of International Affairs, Voice of Iran 13, July-August 1984:7). To this end, NAMIR and former Prime Minister Ali Amini’s Iran Liberation Front (ILF), the only other significant CM faction, signed an agreement in July 1983 calling for the return of a constitutional monarchy with Reza Shah II as the new monarch.
After Khomeini: The Iranian Second Republic by Anoushiravan Ehteshami