By Yutaka Kobayashi
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Additional info for Biological Applications of Liquid Scintillation Counting
It is difficult to maintain the kind of stability required in scintillation counting with logarithmic amplifiers over a three- to four-decade relative energy range. Furthermore, inspection of the spectra in Fig. 25 shows that the carbon-14 spectrum above tritium occupies less than 20% of the maximum pulse height analyzer window width. This means that the discriminator settings must be very accurate, easily reproducible, and stable to be useful. In a linear system, the carbon-14 spectrum lying above the tritium can be made to occupy about 60-70% of the maximum pulse height window opening, and this allows more latitude in reproducing the settings and maintaining pulse height analyzer stability.
8. Berlman, I . B. J. Chem. Phys. 34, 598 (1961). 9. Birks, J. , and Kuchela, K. N. Proc. Phys. Soc, London 77, 1083 (1961). 10. Swank, R. K , and Buck, W . L. Rev. Sei. Instrum. 26, 15 (1955). 11. Engstrom, R. W . , Stoudenheimer, R. , and Glover, A. M . Nucleonics 10, 58 (1952). 12. Murray, R. , and Manning, J. J. IRE Trans. Nucl. Sei. 7, 80 (1960). 13. , Simpson, S. , Tait, J. , and Whitehead, J. K . } Proc. Int. } 2nd, 1954 Vol. 1, p. 313 (1954). 14. Bush, E. T. Anal. Chem. 35, 1024 (1963).
Of the many ring structures studied, oxazole and 1,3,4-oxadiazole have formed the basis of the most useful scintillators. Four primary scintillators are listed in Table 1. p-Terphenyl was one of the first scintillators to be used, but it is not very soluble at reduced temperatures or in solutions containing water. p-Terphenyl can be used in ambient temperature systems and is comparatively inexpensive. 2,5-Diphenyloxazole, or PPO, is the most commonly used scintillator today. It displays excellent solubility characteristics in the usual solvents, including those used to take up water; it exhibits high scintillation efficiency 42 3.
Biological Applications of Liquid Scintillation Counting by Yutaka Kobayashi