By Giancarlo Lancini, Rolando Lorenzetti (auth.)
In reaction to the field's want for an introductory textual content, the authors have distilled the great and scattered literature when it comes to the biotechnology of microbial secondary metabolites. basic biology, biosynthesis, the hunt for novel metabolites, and strategies for pressure development are all mentioned to supply undergraduate and graduate scholars with a concise, readable evaluation of the field.
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Additional info for Biotechnology of Antibiotics and Other Bioactive Microbial Metabolites
Tsukubaensis with a complex structure comprising a 23-member lactone (Fig. 8). It is undergoing advanced clinical trials for its very interesting activity as an immunosuppressive BIOLOGY OF ANTIBIOTIC-PRODUCING MICROORGANISMS 49 agent. Several analogues, produced by other Streptomyces strains, are also being intensively studied. 4. Genera ofActinomycetales Other Than Streptomyces Actinomycetes are a large group of diverse bacteria, having in common the characteristic (in some cases the simple tendency) to grow as filaments.
In contrast to their uniform biosynthetic origin, these antibiotics present a variety of antimicrobial activities and mechanisms of action. Most are inhibitors of gram-positive bacteria; some, such as the polymyxins, inhibit gram-negative bacilli. Others, such as the iturins (bacillomycin), are antifungal agents. Their mechanisms of action vary from the inhibition of polynucleotide functions (edeines), through impairing peptidoglycan synthesis (bacitracin), to the interference with the cytoplasmic membrane functions (gramicidins).
Polyether antibiotics are linear aliphatic molecules, highly substituted with methyl or ethyl groups. Their main characteristic is the presence of a series oftetrahydropyran and tetrahydrofuran rings along the chain (Fig. 6). About 100 polyethers have been isolated from streptomycetes; many from other actinomycetes. The polyether antibiotics are active against several aerobic and anaerobic bacteria but their commercial usefulness relates to their anticoccidiostatic activity, for which they are used in veterinary medicine.
Biotechnology of Antibiotics and Other Bioactive Microbial Metabolites by Giancarlo Lancini, Rolando Lorenzetti (auth.)